Colognoisseur Is Going to Pitti Fragranze 2014!

Colognoisseur is heading to Pitti Fragranze in Florence, Italy. For those who don’t know this is the Fall perfume expo which is in its twelfth year. I will be attending all three days from Friday September 12 through Sunday September 14, 2014. You can look forward to full coverage of all of the new releases and events at the fair. I will be posting a daily wrap-up each day throughout the weekend and once I return a full overview. I will navigate the over 240 brands that will be represented at the fair looking for the newest releases from well-known brands and especially looking for the debut brands which surprise and delight me.

Here is a partial list of the brands who are exhibiting:

Aedes de Venustas, Agonist, Aj Arabia, Amouage, Arquiste, Bakel, Blood Concept, Bois 1920, Bruno Acampora Profumi, Calé Fragranze d’Autore, Carner Barcelona, Caron, Castle Forbes, Cire Trudon, Comptoir Sud Pacifique, Couto, Coquillette Paris, Dr Gritti, Dr Sebagh, D.S. & Durga, Eau d’Italie, Etat Libre D’Orange, Farmacia SS Annunziata dal 1561, Floris, Frapin, Fueguia 1833. Patagonia, Heeley, Histoires de Parfums, Honoré des Prés, House of Sillage, Humiecki & Graef, Il Profumo, Illuminum Fragrance, J.F. Schwarzlose Berlin, Jul et Mad, Laboratorio Olfattivo,  Le Galion, Mariella Martinato, Miller Harris, Miriam Quevedo, Mona di Orio, Montale – Paris, Neela Vermeire, Nobile 1942, nu_be, Odin NY, Officina delle Essenze, O’Driù, Olivier Durbano, Pañpuri, Parfums de Marly, Profumi del Forte, Puredistance, Roads, RPL Maison – Atmospheric Perfumes, Scentbar, Simone Cosac Profumi, Six Scents,  The Different Company, Tiziana Terenzi, Ulrich Lang New York, Welton London, Xerjoff.

Please check back in all next weekend for the latest from Pitti Fragranze.

Mark Behnke

A Whisper to A Scream

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For as long as I have been writing reviews of perfume I have included a sentence about how long the perfume lasts on my skin and my estimation of its projection, or sillage. Even when including that bit of information one of the most common questions in my e-mail box is exactly how long does it last and does it really project? There are a group of readers who have also asked me to stop including the information because they don’t care; they are the minority. For most who read about perfume the length of time a perfume lasts on their skin and whether you can smell it a few feet away has become some indication of overall quality, but should it be?

The persistence issue is a particularly perplexing one to me how that has become correlated with quality. I think the hypothesis goes if it lasts overnight on my skin then the amount of perfume oil must be higher and so it is better. There are some lines for whom that thinking is sort of correct. If you are smelling patchouli or natural sandalwood in elevated concentrations which can last for quite a while. Those materials can be expensive to use in a concentration that lasts. When you think about it though some of the most persistent notes in all of perfume are the woody aromachemicals like Ambrox, Iso E Super, or Norlimbanol. These are among some of the cheapest ingredients in perfume but last longer than even the most precious natural oils. Those are what many people are smelling the next day even after a shower.

rose petal enfleurageRose Petal Enfleurage

A perfume which is employing a number of special ingredients that have been produced by labor-intensive procedures like enfleurage or tincturing are worth their weight in gold. When a perfumer uses these kind of ingredients it adds nuance that simple aromachemicals can’t imitate. This is why when a perfume containing large amounts of natural ingredients which might not last as long has much more appeal to me than a perfume that just finishes on a base of woody aromachemicals that last overnight. I would also venture to say that the perfume containing the natural raw materials is more expensive to produce.

When it comes to projection I am just baffled at the concept that it is an indicator of quality in any way. I have a number of extraits which are among my favorite perfumes. They wear so close to my skin you can’t smell those unless you are me, or my wife. They are true skin scents and they are incredibly compelling in their ability to convey beauty without filling the room up with a vapor trail. There are plenty of perfumes I love which fill a room up with their extroverted sillage but I have never seen it as something which means it is better. It really is like a chorus of voices and you need all levels from Bass to Soprano but if it is done well it is done well whether everyone around you can smell it, or not.

Don’t worry I understand longevity and sillage is important to many readers and I will continue to add the information. Just keep in mind a whisper can often be as compelling as a scream.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review A Lab on Fire Oxymusc-White Musk Redux

There are perfumers I just enjoy seeing what they will do next. Alberto Morillas is one of those who straddles every aspect of perfume making. He has been creating perfume since 1983 and he has seen trends come and go all while adapting and innovating with the times. M. Morillas has been so prolific he was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from The Fragrance Foundation. His body of work is so broad it is difficult to say he is known for a single thing. One thing he is known for is the first use of the so-called white musks in 2001. Over the last thirteen years he has continually shown that he has an ability to make these very ubiquitous materials seem less common. A Lab on Fire Oxymusc shows there is still something new to discover from the white musks.

A Lab on Fire is becoming one of the most consistent niche brands on the market. For the last three years they have taken some of the most elite perfumers working and given them a platform to explore freely. What that has produced is a line of perfumes from recognizable perfumers who have taken their distinguishable aesthetic and pushed it. This has made the entire collection something which has always been nothing less than interesting. For Oxymusc M. Morillas is not only revisiting the white musks he pioneered but also the aquatic genre he helped create. In Oxymusc he has turned both genres into a fragrance that is as soft and ethereal as a cloud floating over an expanse of ocean.

albertomorrilasAlberto Morillas

M. Morillas knows how to construct an aquatic accord. In Oxymusc he is going for an aquatic accord similar to a watercolor. The contrast and texture is all about subtlety. When taken together it has a maximal impact. This aquatic accord is held up by three tentpoles of muguet, lavender, and thyme. Underneath the tent made by those notes is a couple of white musks. This creates a sea spray accord as when the wind carries the spray to you from afar. It is never strong but it persists at a very consistently pleasant level. The typical freshly ironed white musk vibe is present in the base. M. Morillas turns it into a set of well-loved sheets which are soft to the senses. Often these kind of mixtures of the larger macrocyclic musks can have a bit of bite to them. In Oxymusc M. Morillas has removed any hint of a rough edge. It goes perfectly with the sea spray accord and at the same intensity.

Oxymusc has 10-12 hour longevity but it is going to be a deceptive longevity on most. You will think it is gone after a few hours but find yourself smelling it again. When I say this is light, it is light but it is a fabulously fragile fragrance. Obviously the sillage is moderate on something as light as this.

We so often laud the perfumes that have the loudest voices. Oxymusc speaks to me in wisps of water vapor and whispers of the sea. Leaning in to experience it completely is well worth the effort.

Disclosure: This review is based on a sample provided by Twisted Lily.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review Comme des Garcons Pharrell Williams Girl- Celebuscent the CdG Way

There is probably nobody hotter than Pharrell Williams right now. His song “Happy” was the song of the last year. He is one of the new coaches on “The Voice”. It only seems natural that he would want to make a fragrance, too. Except he hasn’t gone to the usual suspects to collaborate with. He has chosen Comme des Garcons to be the brand which he will share his name with. From the moment this was announced I was actually looking forward to see how Comme des Garcons and their Creative Director Christian Astuguevieille would approach their first celebuscent.

First choice was to bring in perfumer Antoine Lie. M. Lie is as close as there is to an “in-house” perfumer at Comme des Garcons. He has an intimate understanding of the Comme des Garcons aesthetic and this would allow Mr. Williams to give his input to lead to the best kind of collaboration. Now that I have Comme des Garcons Pharrell Williams Girl my faith was confirmed. This is a celebuscent done the CdG way.

antoine lie

Antoine Lie

Girl opens on a fantastic duet of lavender and white pepper. Lavender is about as safe a note to use in perfume as there is. The white pepper makes it a bit less safe. What is also nice about the white pepper is it enhances the herbal quality of lavender and keeps it from being boring. This leads to a heart of iris and violet together with styrax. This is a good example of what you would not find in a typical celebuscent. The iris and violet, sure. The styrax, not likely. Just like the white pepper with the lavender on top the styrax adds a contrasting foundation to the more common notes. This is what you find in other Comme des Garcons fragrances regularly. The base of Girl is almost becoming a Comme des Garcons trademark as a woody cocktail of vetiver, cedar, and sandalwood provide the finishing touches.

Girl has 8-10 hour longevity and average sillage.

There is nothing as pleasing as having one’s faith in creativity confirmed. M. Astuguevieille is one of only a few creative directors who could have seen this through. M. Lie was able to create something which feels modern and kinetic. Mr. Williams has something with his name on it of which he can be proud. I also need to mention the bottle by artist KAWS. When you take the whole package together this is as good as it gets for a celebuscent. It makes me clap along because I know what makes me happy and can’t nothing bring me down.

Disclosure: This review was based on a sample provided by Comme des Garcons.

Mark Behnke

Under the Radar: Elizabeth and James Nirvana White and Nirvana Black- The Olsens Get it Right

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There are times I am just too stubborn. If there is anything which makes me dig my fragrant heels in it is celebrity perfume or as they are called, celebuscents. Too often they are quick creations heavily influenced by focus groups who are asked inane questions like, “Which one of these do you think smells like the name on the bottle?” This is not to say celebuscents are completely devoid of quality just 99% of them. You might glean from this why when I receive a new celebuscent it very quickly gets buried. I think when Elizabeth and James Nirvana White and Nirvana Black appeared in the spring I should have given them more than a cursory sniff. While cleaning up the pile of perfumes I came across my samples again. I guess I was in a more receptive mood and this time they connected.

olsens_nirvana_launch

Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen

The template for a successful celebuscent was laid out by actress Sarah Jessica Parker, in 2005, as she collaborated closely with the perfumers behind her fist perfume for Coty, Lovely. Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen did the same with perfumer Pierre Negrin. It took over two years for them to arrive at a final version which would become Nirvana Black. I would guess that process was a learning experience; because as they were putting the finishing touches on Nirvana Black they decided they wanted a second fragrance to go with it. This time the collaboration with perfumer Honorine Blanc went much quicker and Nirvana Black and Nirvana White were released in January of 2014.

What I like about both of these perfumes is that they are very simple and that simplicity captures the goth boho chic design aesthetic of the Elizabeth and James clothing and accessories. The three note structure of both makes it difficult; for the perfumer needs to make sure those three notes harmonize well together and in this case M. Negrin and Mme Blanc did a tremendous job.

e and j nirvana duo

Nirvana White is the more boho of the two as it works with two fresh florals before ending on a beautiful soft musk. The top floral is peony and the peony source Mme Blanc employs is that spring garden fresh floral version. It is uplifting until the other floral, muguet, adds a significant green aspect. Together this is an elementary vernal floral accord. What is not elementary is the cocktail of musks Mme Blanc uses in the base. With white in the name you might expect the laundry-fresh musks but Mme Blanc decides to create an accord that runs the spectrum of synthetic musks. At the end this musk accord has a soft authenticity to it that feels like a bit of an illusion.

Nirvana Black is that boho girl heading out to her favorite Goth club in the evening. M. Negrin also uses primarily three notes for his fragrance but I can see why they took so long to find the right balance. The top note is violet and there are a variety of violets they could have chosen. The one which makes it into the bottle is a rich slightly candied version. It segues smoothly into a sandalwood heart and the synergy they hit is perfect as the candied facets are bolstered by the sweeter nature of sandalwood. Nirvana Black comes to an end with an austere less sweet vanilla.

Nirvana White and Nirvana Black have 8-10 hour longevity and moderate sillage.

Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen are to be commended for taking their time and being uncompromising in getting what they wanted. That dedication shows and it is why Nirvana White and Nirvana Black stand out from the rest of the celebuscent pack.

Disclosure: This review was based on samples provided by Elizabeth and James.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Reviews Arquiste for J. Crew No. 31 and No. 57- This Way to Niche

There has been a very interesting trend over the last few years as niche brands reach out to work with mid-level prestige brands. This is a bit more refined version of the capsule collections by haute couture fashion designers at mass-market department stores. The most recent partnership is between J. Crew, a clothing line with a very recognizable aesthetic. The same can be said about Arquiste. Both of these brands are successful because of the creative direction at the top. Jenna Lyons is the President and Creative Director for J. Crew. Carlos Huber holds the same positions for Arquiste. Both of these talented visionaries have combined to create Arquiste for J. Crew No. 31 and No. 47.

jenna lyons

Jenna Lyons of J. Crew

When doing a project of this kind both of the brands who have their name on the label have to come through without overwhelming the other. It very much has to be a true partnership. Sr. Huber as he does with all of his fragrances found a setting he wanted these fragrances to represent. For this he looked back to the 1943 exhibition, the first featuring art exclusively by women, curated by Peggy Guggenheim called “Exhibition by 31 Women” and held in her gallery, Art of this Century, on W. 57th Street in New York. These are the source of the numbers in the perfumes No. 31 for the number of artists and No. 57 for the location. Sr. Huber felt that he wanted these perfumes to be “as stimulating as the art, drawing on the scents of the strong cocktails and bold perfumes that filled the night.” He then turned to his two longtime collaborators Rodrigo Flores-Roux and Yann Vasnier to create the fragrances.

carlos huber

Carlos Huber of Arquiste

No. 31 is the one of the pair meant to evoke the mise en scene of opening night at the gallery. It is really working to pick up the drinks and perfume as the crowd mixes and mingles. When I wore No. 31 for the first time there was part of me that felt like it was very reminiscent of some older vintage perfume. I realized instead this is the smell of many perfumes overlapping in close quarters not so much one as a virtual collage of many. Sr. Flores-Roux and M. Vasnier do this by using plum, rose, and an eau de vie accord. All of these are classic perfume ingredients of the past and together they create a vintage feel. A bit of booziness courtesy of sweet vermouth is joined by oakmoss and patchouli. All together this truly achieves the desired effect of creating a 1940’s night in the gallery.

The exhibition was of modern art and No. 57 is meant to have a bit more modern feel to it than No. 31. I also think Sr. Huber really likes the idea of the drinking going on as No. 57 features a potent whiskey. No. 57 opens with that whiskey but it is paired with a vibrant cinnamon to create a spicy cocktail. This is all framed in with clean cedarwood. It all heads towards a base of vanilla and labdanum which is warm and comforting.

Both No. 31 and No. 57 are eau de toilette strength and have 6-8 hour longevity with moderate sillage.

Both of these perfumes fir right in with the J. Crew aesthetic of clothing and accessories for the modern woman. The Arquiste half is a bit of an introduction to the idea of niche perfumery as neither fragrance probably goes quite as far as It might if it was a full-on Arquiste release. I think that is probably for the best because I’d like to see these perfumes succeed in showing the J. Crew customer that there is a world of perfume beyond the department store counter if they can just be shown the way. Ms. Lyons and Sr. Huber are to be congratulated for constructing a pair of signposts which do just this.

Disclosure: This review is based on bottles I purchased.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review Regime des Fleurs Nitesurf- A Night on Ocean Drive

When I am back in South Florida, visiting, like many who visit I usually end up on South Beach. After we stroll around, the early morning hours are often spent on a park bench in Lummus Park. There is a smell as the tropical night begins to cool, the night blooming flowers are in their glory, and the waves crash on the beach as the tide comes in. To me it the smell of where I grew up. Until recently a perfume has never completely captured that smell; Regime des Fleurs Nitesurf does.

Regime des Fleurs is a new indie brand founded in February of 2014. The owners and self-taught perfumers are Alia Raza and Ezra Woods. Ms. Raza is a filmmaker and Mr. Woods is a stylist who want to make a perfume line focused on different florals. They also want to hearken back to the brazen style aesthetic of the 1990’s. All six of the debut fragrances are based on specific florals and they all have a pretty significant presence to them. There isn’t anything introverted about these first releases. Nitesurf’s central flower is neroli. Neroli is reminiscent of Florida Water which is the classic citrus eau de cologne I smelled everywhere growing up. This floral core is placed into a matrix of beach notes to create an olfactory still life of a night by the beach.

Ezra and Alia

Alia Raza and Ezra Woods (Photo: Town and Country)

The neroli on top glows with the brightness of the neon on an Art Deco hotel. There is almost a palpable buzz. To go with that electrical hum an ozonic accord picks up on that. This is a typical aquatic neroli opening. What changes it is by adding in some supporting florals, like ginger lily, it gives a greater depth to the neroli. It feels like the neroli is on a time lapse loop as it blooms and expands rapidly. I like the expansiveness of Nitesurf at this moment in its development. To create the surf Ms. Raza and Mr. Woods make a choice of two notes to realize their vision. Ambergris is a typical choice. Distillation of crushed nautilus shells is not a typical choice. This ingredient is what separates indie perfumery from the mainstream. This is the second time I have smelled a distillate of crushed sea shells in a perfume and it adds this earthy chalky quality which in combination with the ambergris creates a fabulous beach accord. The neroli is still in place as the surf accord comes together and once they are all there Nitesurf is complete.

Nitesurf has 8-10 hour longevity and moderate sillage.

Nitesurf is my favorite of the original six releases and it is a perfume which makes me interested in what Ms. Raza and Mr. Woods do next. For now I just put on some Nitesurf, close my eyes, and imagine I am with my friends.

Disclosure: This review was based on a sample provided by Regime des Fleurs.

Mark Behnke

The Sunday Magazine: The Twelfth Doctor Who

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Television series re-invent themselves all of the time as cast members come and go. If the writing staff is clever and the casting is well done the best shows never miss a beat. As a plus it often allows for greater latitude in storytelling as the new character can often add a different viewpoint. Of course if the writers aren’t clever and the casting is lazy this can lead to the fairly rapid cancellation of a show. One show which actually thrives on the turnover of main characters is the sci-fi series Doctor Who.

Doctor Who has been around since 1963 and it follows the travels of the last Time Lord called The Doctor and a Companion who becomes the surrogate for the audience as this Earthling has to try and keep up with the Doctor. Doctor Who had a rebirth in 2005 as writer Russell T. Davies convinced the BBC it was time to give Doctor Who another chance to be discovered by a new generation. Which it has. His first Doctor was actor Christopher Eccleston. When the Doctor “dies” he regenerates with a new body and face but retains all of his memories. At the end of the first season Mr. Eccleston regenerated into The Doctor played by David Tennant and then five years on he would regenerate into actor Matt Smith who would play the role for three years. All three of these Doctors were young and of a like age to their Companions so there was a bit of romantic tension. The latest incarnation of the Doctor is a very interesting choice by the writers to go in a different direction.

peter capaldi

Peter Capaldi as Doctor Who

Actor Peter Capaldi is the twelfth Doctor Who and is a bit of a throwback to the earliest versions who were played by older men. This sets up a very different relationship with the current Companion, Clara. It is a bit of a reversal of roles as the young woman is helping the older visaged Doctor. One thing the writers seem to be exploring with this Doctor is the idea of whether what he does is considered “good”. The Doctor saves the universe and Earth many times but there is a cost to this, usually the masterminds behind it. This Doctor seems to be a little more concerned with what he does is “good”. Mr. Capaldi is giving this Doctor a world-weary character that is very different from what has come, especially with the recent three Doctors. Looking around on the forums it seems the initial reception is decidedly mixed. There are people, like me, who are digging the ambiguity. The detractors are missing the lively energy of the Doctor as portrayed by Mr. Tennant and Mr. Smith. These writers have been so successful that they definitely have the opportunity to develop an entirely different Doctor and I think the fans will allow for them to do that.

I am fascinated to see how this all turns out from a Doctor Who perspective and from whether a fan base will go for a Doctor very different from what has recently come. For now, I really look forward to the rest of this new season to see what the answers are.

Mark Behnke

The Gold Standard: Jasmine- Serge Lutens Sarrasins

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This is going to be a version of The Gold Standard where some are going to disagree vehemently. The reason for that is there really are two versions of jasmine in perfumery. Which one you like best is all about your tolerance for the more vivid notes of unadulterated jasmine. Jasmine when it is extracted also carries a significant amount of a chemical class called indoles. Indoles are a very pungent chemical and some people, like me, love them; others run away. This is why you see jasmine in both forms in perfumes. There is the straight indolic jasmine and there are the cleaned-up greatly reduced in indoles jasmine. One is a child of the night and the other is a freshly scrubbed ingénue. My choice for The Gold Standard in jasmine is a perfume which not only proudly displays the indoles at the core of jasmine but doubles down with even more skank in the base. That perfume is Serge Lutens Sarrasins.

Christopher-Sheldrake

Christopher Sheldrake

Sarrasins came out at the very end of 2007 and perfumer Christopher Sheldrake turns in one of his most simple compositions, ever, for Serge Lutens. There are five listed notes but each of them when used in their most natural form provide nuance to burn. It is instructional that if your raw materials are suitably complex you don’t need to gild the lily, or the jasmine, in this case.

Bergamot is listed as a note and it is sort of like a matador note as it is the only representative of the light in the entire development. As soon as you notice it is gone under one of the most indolic jasmines I’ve encountered in a perfume. It was exactly what I wanted as the sweet floral character is countered with a raw dirty accord. This jasmine has dirty smudges on her cheeks and her debutante days are well behind her and she is all the more interesting for it. Most perfumers would just let the indoles naturally carry the day but M. Sheldrake decides to add a slug of castoreum. It almost feels like the jasmine is growing fur as if it is a carnivorous flower in a Hogwarts greenhouse. A wonderfully redolent patchouli swaggers in and labdanum applies the last bit of intensity.

Sarrasins has 12-14 hour longevity and average sillage.

serge sarrasins

It is almost ridiculous to say they don’t make them like they used to when I am referring to perfume made seven years ago. Sarrasins feels like a perfume which is out of step with current aesthetics and would’ve been at home on a counter containing the original Patou Joy and Chanel No. 5. For all of that it feels like a perfume unstuck from time, it also feels timeless in its uncompromising adherence to the style of Serge Lutens circa 2007. There is no other fragrance which exemplifies indolic jasmine better than Sarrasins.

Disclosure: This review is based on a bottle I purchased.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review Providence Perfume Co Bay Rum- A Pirate Looks at 50

As appealing as pretending to be a pirate was as a child, I have to admit the idea is even more appealing as a man in his 50’s. I am pretty sure I’m not alone in the idea of a life on the ocean living on the fringes of the law having appeal as we get older. When I was a kid with an eyepatch and a plastic sword I also nipped into my dad’s bathroom to get a bottle of rum, bay rum. My father had a humongous bottle of Pinaud’s Bay Rum. I used to sprinkle a little in my bandana to smell authentic. Bay Rum also played a large part in my haircuts as it was the spicy finish to a visit to the barber. I can honestly say I haven’t given Bay Rum a thought in twenty years, easy. Thanks to one of our most talented Natural Perfumers, Charna Ethier, who has released Bay Rum under her Providence Perfume Co. label, it has plundered my consciousness.

Ms. Ethier wanted Bay Rum to pay homage to Newport, RI which was at one time the rum capital of the world. Bay Rum is as simple a fragrance as it gets as sailors in the West Indies took bay leaf and let it soak in some rum. That has been the formula for hundreds of years. Ms. Ethier takes that most basic of formulas and adds a little bit more of the fragrant beats of a pirate’s existence. This turns her Bay Rum from something focused into a fragrance which has a much wider perspective.

charna ethier

Charna Ethier

Ms. Ethier stayed true to her Rhode Island roots and contacted a local rum distiller to provide the rum. This provides a rich boozy foundation for everything else to be added to. Most importantly the other part of the name, a real West Indian bay leaf. On the top of this she adds a bit of tart lime to ward off scurvy. Her choice of allspice takes the bay leaf and transforms it into something less piquant and more elegant. I would venture she spent some time finding the right partner for the bay leaf and allspice is absolutely the right one. A pirate hides in a cove surrounded by flowers growing from the trees and in Bay Rum Ms. Ethier adds jasmine and ylang-ylang to remind you that you are in the tropics. The last addition is a wonderfully briny ozonic sea spray accord. When you are on a boat at speed and the spray is being flung up into the air as the bow cleaves through the wave, is what this accord smells like. It is what turns Bay Rum into a voyage on the high seas while wearing it.

Bay Rum has 10-12 hour longevity. Ms. Ethier has made a very long lasting version of something which is not known for its longevity in other forms. The sillage is average.

Ms. Ethier is really broadening her abilities as a perfumer as Bay Rum shows she can take something elementary and add to it without disrupting it. That is much easier than it sounds. Bay Rum is a success because every additional note she chose to add had its place within the existing structure. I am loving Bay Rum because Ms. Ethier has made a Bay Rum for this perfumista in his 50’s which allows me to let my inner child out to play; at the wheel of a ship flying the Jolly Roger. It is like finding a treasure, no ‘X’ necessary to mark the spot.

Disclosure: This review is based on a sample provided by Providence Perfume Co.

Mark Behnke