When it comes to celebrity fragrances there are few that make the grade. One of the most obvious reasons is the name on the bottle has little or nothing to do with it. Depending on the situation that can free a creative team to take chances but more often it leaves them to just knock off an imitation of something already on the market. The celebuscents which I admire have almost always had the celebrity intimately involved in the creative process. The first perfume to prove this principle to me was Sarah Jessica Parker Lovely. This was the debut perfume for Ms. Parker when she was at the heights of her Sex and the City fame. The whole process was covered in Chandler Burr’s book The Perfect Scent. What came across was a woman who wanted the perfume which carried her name to be something better than mediocre. It was and still is a successful perfume on the market. I think Lovely is a great perfume but I like the second perfume Ms. Parker collaborated on better; called Covet.
Covet came out two years after Lovely. The same creative director Ann Gottlieb was helping Ms. Parker and perfumer Frank Voelkl was picked to compose the perfume. Because of the success of Lovely I think the creative team felt they had a bit of leeway in trying something different with Covet. They would take that latitude and make something quite atypical for the state of the department store market circa 2007. Covet is like a mob of unruly kids all vying for the wearer’s attention. That amount of manic overly nuanced exposition wore most people out. I found it exhilarating. At the time it was the only thing in the mall that didn’t smell like everything else.
Time, and the consumer, has not been kind to Covet and it was discontinued about two years ago. Even though it has been discontinued it has been viewed as such a disappointment that you can find full bottles for less than $20 at almost any place that sells discount perfume. Which is why it is a Discount Diamond.
Covet opens on one of those unruly moments I mentioned. M. Voelkl takes lemon, lavender, geranium, a watery green leafy accord, and chocolate and turns them loose. It sounds like so many conflicting ideas it should just collapse. I’ll admit it comes close but I find this highly saturated opening fabulous. It never quite completely veers off course although I will admit it does drive on the wrong side of the road from time to time. This chaotic opening is what put many off because it is so weird, even eight years later it is still pretty weird. For the rest of the development Covet is relatively more straightforward as the heart is muguet and magnolia. The base is vetiver, woody notes and amber.
Covet has 10-12 hour longevity and average sillage.
Covet has been consigned to being the red-headed stepchild of Ms. Parker’s brand meant to be forgotten and unloved. If you are willing to take a chance on something great and for the price why wouldn’t you? Give Covet a try you might find something that is a real diamond in the rough.
Disclosure: This review is based on a bottle I purchased.
No matter what it we enjoy there is always a part of it that a person likes that is usually not shared by others. These are usually called guilty pleasures. They are the bad movie you love, mine is “Buckaroo Banzai Across the Eighth Dimension”. At least for me, almost all of my guilty pleasures are overstuffed packages trying to do too many things at the same time. In fragrance I have them and they are definitely found in the discount bins. My favorite perfume guilty pleasure was found in the perfume equivalent of flipping channels at 2AM, digging through the perfume bin at my local discounter chain. As I was doing that one day I came across a blue bottle with a bit of rope wound around the cap. I looked at the name and had remembered a spirited discussion on a couple of the forums saying this was better that you might think. That was enough for me to liberate it from the olfactory hinterlands and bring it home with me. That perfume is Tommy Bahama Set Sail St. Barts for Men.
Tommy Bahama is best known for the Hawaiian shirts which carry the brand but over time it has branched out into other areas. In 2005 the released a pair of Tommy Bahama perfumes one for men and one for women. Every year for the next five years they would release a pair of men’s and women’s perfumes. The third set was released in 2007 and called Set Sail St. Barts. Perfumer Richard Herpin was asked to employ a tequila accord in both the men’s and women’s perfumes. This pair is a good example of how things can go right and how they can go wrong. In Set Sail St. Barts for Women M. Herpin tried to mix the tequila with some strong tropical florals on top of a musk cocktail. It was like waking up in a flower shop after having had a few too many tequila shots. As a floral mixed with tequila it just didn’t work. For Set Sail St. Barts for Men M Herpin got rid of the flowers and replaced them with aquatic and fruit notes. This time everything works as it felt like sitting in a beach chair under a palm tree with a bunch of lime, a bottle of tequila, and tropical fruit.
Set Sail St. Barts for Men opens with the bite of lime on top of an ozonic accord mixed with aquatic chords. It is a typical aquatic opening matched with citrus. A bit of wet green comes next as the kelp floating on the water’s surface comes to the foreground. Then a really lush tequila accord which contains a rough synthetic edge to it. This is raw unrefined tequila bought from the local market. M. Herpin matches it with a juicy tropical fruit synthetic. He calls it guava in the note list I get more mango or papaya from it. A woody base note reminiscent of a coconut palm heated by the sun anchors the base with some white musk and vanilla thrown in to add some depth.
Set Sail St. Barts for Men has 10-12 hour longevity and above average sillage. People will know you are wearing this.
There is nothing terribly original about this fragrance but it tickles me in some undefined place. I wore it for the first time this year over the past Memorial Day weekend and just like seeing the opening credits to Buckaroo Banzai it brings a loopy smile to my face, even if I’m the only one grinning.
Disclosure: This review was based on a bottle I purchased.
As much as I enjoy my perfume my first encounter with fragrance comes every morning on the end of my shaving brush. It should be no surprise that there is a veritable metropolitan skyline of stacked pots of various shaving creams on my vanity. Along with my old-style Gillette Red Tip double edge razor my whole morning routine is a throwback. Like my knowledge of perfume my experience with different shaving products came through an internet site called Badger and Blade. While I was familiar with all of the aftershaves and colognes the members were talking about there was one which I had never heard of, Alt-Innsbruck.
In the 1930’s menthol cigarettes were invented with the idea of the menthol somehow soothing the throat. They were sold under the brand name Kool. Menthol as a soothing adjunct to tobacco was also on Austrian pharmacist Franz Gatterer’s mind when he designed Alt-Innsbruck in 1953. Hr. Gatterer wanted his fragrance to do double duty as both aftershave and eau de cologne. The idea was the menthol would soothe the razor burn early on and the tobacco would provide a rugged masculine scent for the rest of the day. Hr. Gatterer quite adroitly achieved his dual purpose as Alt-Innsbruck works well on both levels.
Menthol itself can be a problematic note for many and what your tolerance is for it will decide how much you like Alt-Innsbruck. Most often when menthol is in a perfume it has a sharply delineated purpose. In Alt-Innsbruck Hr. Gatterer’s menthol comes off like an emulsion. The menthol is very intense but made diffuse. I most often think of Vicks Vapo-Rub in the early moments when I apply it as it feels like the menthol is in a thick petroleum matrix. If you’ve ever smelled a curing barn with racks of tobacco leaves drying you will know there is a natural mentholated quality present. That is the transition from the opening skin soothing moments to the tobacco eau de cologne phase. Hr. Gatterer uses both the tobacco flower and tobacco leaf. As a cologne it carries a richness that the menthol helps by adding to it with a faint echo of its power from the opening.
Alt-Innsbruck has 4-6 hour longevity and moderate sillage.
Like all Eau de Colognes from the 1950’s this is a temporary fragrance or it requires topping up throughout the day. The difficulty to that is you get the menthol blast at the top again. Where I like it in the morning after my shave it is more problematic when I apply it a second time in the afternoon. The bright spot is the menthol phase also moves pretty quickly. The real bright spot is the tobacco part of Alt-Innsbruck is really amazing. It is as good as tobacco perfumes that are sold at ten times its $34.00/100mL price tag. If you’re a fan of menthol and tobacco or you’ve kicked the smoking habit and miss your old Kools give Alt-Innsbruck a try.
Disclosure: This review was based on a bottle I purchased.
Currently the names that are given a fragrance can have such a disconnect that I wonder if the marketing team actually smelled the perfume before designing the campaign. Back in the 1970’s and 80’s the names pretty much carried a truth-in-advertising realism to them. One of the most classic men’s fragrances of all-time is Geoffrey Beene Grey Flannel. Like a finely tailored pair of pants Grey Flannel provides a sharply drawn perfume and one of the early versions of a masculine floral. Even though it can be found on the bargain shelf it is still quite the classic.
Grey Flannel was signed by perfumer Andre Fromentin. Back in 1975 when Grey Flannel was released the perfumers were ghosts, rarely mentioned. In Fragrances of the World, Grey Flannel is M. Fromentin’s only listed fragrance. I would be interested to know which other perfumes of the time he had a hand in and whether Grey Flannel was a good example of his style. What M. Fromentin produced in Grey Flannel was a powerhouse perfume centered on violet.
Grey Flannel opens with a very green herbal set of top notes. Sage is the core around which M. Fromentin adds in galbanum and violet leaves. The use of the silvery green violet leaves make this opening a bit too much for many. The authority it carries definitely stamps it as a product of the 70’s. M. Fromentin then brings the violet forward and it is supported by iris to give depth. As this combines with the top notes it forms a freshly mown grass accord. As it develops over a few hours the violet becomes more prominent. Much later on a bit of cinnamon adds some zip. As Grey Flannel heads into the base it plays it very safe with a mix of sandalwood and oakmoss.
Grey Flannel has 16-18 hour longevity and prodigious sillage. This is one you need to be careful applying or you will have a visible vapor trail.
Grey Flannel despite being a product of its time does not feel dated. It feels odd because in today’s ocean of fresh sporty men’s fragrances it is so different. If you’re looking for a change-up from those kind of fragrances you can find a 4oz. bottle for less than $20. Hard to go wrong at that price. It is one of my favorites of the powerhouse perfumes from that time period.
Disclosure: This review based on a bottle I purchased.
If a perfume is still relevant after 37 years that probably speaks a little bit to how good it is. In our need, of which I am guilty of, to name things “new classics” or “modern masterpieces” you might miss the real classic right in front of you. The extra bonus is these perfumes have been around so long that you can easily find them in the discount bins. No matter when I go shopping at the discounters I have always found what I consider to be one of the greatest aromatic fougeres ever for $9.99. That perfume is Azzaro pour Homme.
Azzaro pour Homme was released in 1978 and it was meant to be competition for Paco Rabanne pour Homme. It is not easy to determine who the perfumer on it was. In the Fragrances of the World reference Gerard Anthony is listed as the only perfumer. In numerous other places both Richard Wirtz and Martin Heiddenreich are credited with having a hand in composing it. It was evidently a tortured process. I have always mentioned the proverb, “success has many parents but failure is an orphan” when writing about Azzaro pour Homme because besides the three names listed above there are at least three other perfumers who have claimed to work on it. I can only go with what is on record but especially in the heart it feels like there were many hands at work. It succeeds because the density of those heart notes is what makes Azzaro pour Homme so memorable.
The opening of Azzaro pour Homme is a combination of lavender, citrus, and anise. The anise really stands out in the early moments and the citrus and lavender are bracing. Then we get to the heart and it is reminiscent of looking through a kaleidoscope and rotating it. The colors and components are the same but they keep rearranging into new patterns. What I can detect is a strong herbal presence of sage, basil, rosemary, and cardamom. There are hints of more and the anise lingers down into the heart. A very green geranium is also part of the heart. This is the aromatic part of this fougere. It is a wonderfully complex heart and it lasts for hours like this. When Azzaro pour Homme moves towards its base notes it goes for that very typically 1970’s musk and amber finish. This seemed to be the default finish to a lot of masculine perfumes at this time. It is less prevalent today and so if you are new to the perfume game it may come off as something fresher. For those of us who grew up during this time period it has a bit of the dated “ladies man” vibe a lot of men’s perfumes of the time went for. There is so much good before getting to this that it doesn’t change the way I feel about it but others might feel differently.
Azzaro pour Homme has 18-20 hour longevity and above average sillage.
As I mentioned earlier you can find Azzaro pour Homme at most of the big discount stores in the US. I have seen it as low as $9.99 for a 1oz. bottle. I have also seen 5mL minis in these stores for $5.00 or less. I don’t know if there is a better perfume you can find for this price. If you love fougeres this is one you must have in your collection.
Disclosure: This review was based on a bottle I purchased.
When it comes to trying the original perfumes that formed the beginning of modern perfumery that usually means a trip to the Osmotheque in Versailles. Or a friend with a very deep collection of vintage perfumes. There is one of these olfactory historical touchstones that you can still buy and try for, usually, around $25. It is the original Eau de Cologne created by Jean Marie Farina. Roger & Gallet has produced this original formula under the name Jean Marie Farina Extra Vieille for years and years. It is supposedly the same formula M. Farina created over two hundred years ago.
There is a lot of reason to be skeptical of that claim but this cologne is simplicity itself. In a vacuum you might pass it by without a second thought. That is why it is not a real stretch to believe that what is in the bottle in 2015 is pretty close to what was in the bottle in 1806. That previous sentence probably seemed sort of underwhelming as an endorsement but of any of the classic colognes this one is by far my favorite. There is nothing that compares to it on a hot summer day. The crisp herbal and citrus pick-me-up is like drinking a glass of ice-cold lemonade.
The Original Eau de Cologne Recipe
M. Farina wrote to his brother after he had created this first Eau de Cologne, “I have discovered a scent that reminds me of a spring morning in Italy, of mountain narcissus, orange blossom just after the rain. It gives me great refreshment, strengthens my senses and imagination.” He could never realize that the last part of that statement would become true for generations of perfumers to follow. From those words I realize he wanted his Eau de Cologne to be bracing and strengthening. The best Eau de Colognes have always done this for me. What is nice is the very first one still does this for me.
As I said this is as simple as it gets in construction. It opens on a focused snap of lemon with bergamot. Petitgrain adds even more tart citrus to the beginning. Rosemary adds an herbal greenness which puts metaphorical sunglasses on all of the sunny citrus. It ends on a very lightly floral bouquet of orange blossom. Each of these notes runs one into the other in a fast moving kind of development that is done from beginning to end in a couple of hours. It is that fleeting longevity which is emblematic of many of the classic colognes.
Jean Marie Farina Extra Vieille has 2-3 hour longevity and above average sillage. This is a fragrance you apply liberally and keep doing it throughout a day.
I’ve said often we are in a new golden age of cologne as current perfumers have been taking this venerable architecture and turning out amazing new constructions. It is worth going back to see where it all began and when you can do it for such a low price there is almost no reason for a perfume lover not to own a bottle of this.
Disclosure: this review was based on a bottle I purchased.
At this time of year one of my favorite smells of the season is that of the Christmas tree and the associated pine roping and wreaths which decorate, and scent, everything. It is this natural perfume which will always find me having a real tree in my house. The smell of a fir tree simply means Christmas to me. For twenty years I have owned a perfume that is the perfect Christmas tree fragrance, Pino Silvestre.
I discovered Pino Silvestre soon after I moved to Boston in 1994. I had heard of this little bandbox of a perfume shop in Harvard Square called Colonial Drug. Furthermore it had European perfumes you couldn’t find anywhere else. I was very early in my days of becoming a Colognoisseur and so I approached the doorway with a bit of trepidation. Similar to going to a fancy French restaurant and being handed a menu in French I was worried I would look like a rube. At Colonial Drug I needn’t have worried because as I crossed the threshold I was greeted by the proprietor Cathy. After some discussion with me she handed me a pine cone shaped perfume bottle and said, “I think you’ll like this one.” The pine tree perfume was Pino Silvestre and it was my personal entry to European perfume brands I had never heard of. Cathy made a wise choice and it also made me a lifelong customer for all the years I lived in Boston. There were a lot of days where I was in the store and I saw her hand the little glass pine cone to another new customer only to see a sale being made minutes later. It showed the versatility of the green glass pine cone.
For those of you who grew up in Europe Pino Silvestre is similar to Old Spice or English Leather in the US. What that means is your father probably wore it. Pino Silvestre was released in 1955 and was composed by perfumer Lino Vidal. For most of the next 25 years Pino Silvestre and its ancillary products like shampoo and bubble bath would be a part of a typical household. The fresh pine scent would evoke memories of home to that generation. As I said, for me, it has always reminded me of Christmas trees.
The opening moments of Pino Silvestre are a drive-by of bergamot and citrus. They are there so fleetingly it is almost disingenuous to mention them. The more you spray on the more likely you are to notice them. The business of Pino Silvestre is pine and that’s what comes next. Sig. Vidal cloaks it in herbal notes of sage and thyme. A pinch of tart juniper berry and the richness of clove all combine to round out the synthetic source of pine and make it feel almost supernatural in its photoreality. It all ends with clean cedar and amber.
Pino Silvestre has 6-8 hour longevity and moderate sillage, although you probably project a little more than is apparent to you while wearing it.
I wanted Pino Silvestre to be the first Discount Diamond because the quality for the price is really incredible but I also wanted to wait for Christmas, too. You can find it any number of places for $20 for a 125mL bottle. You will not find a better bargain perfume. It is also a great example of mid-20th century Italian perfumery. For something almost 60 years old it never seems dated to me. Like a classic Christmas tree is deserves to be brought at least once a year.
Disclosure: this review was based on a bottle I purchased.
When it comes to designer floral perfumes of the last two years it seems the style is to knock you over with a massive bouquet of floral notes. If that doesn’t do the trick then the perfumer loads it up with a bunch of fruit. The fresh floral perfume has been shunted aside. One of the earliest examples of the fresh floral was 2000’s FlowerbyKenzo composed by Alberto Morillas.
In the late 1990’s into the early years of the 2000’s perfumers were actively experimenting with the floral perfume architecture. M. Morillas was one of the foremost innovators during this time. He would define numerous perfume styles which continue to this day. When it came to FlowerbyKenzo M. Morillas wanted to capture a crisper flower but he also wanted to capture the entire flower and the early moments are focused on the green stem and leaves. Then to make sure that the wearer doesn’t necessarily identify it as a specific flower M. Morillas uses a mix of synthetic and natural floral notes to create a hybrid perfumed flower which has never seen life in any greenhouse or garden. It is this supernatural flower which makes FlowerbyKenzo such an interesting example within its genre.
The first fleeting moments of FlowerbyKenzo are a fabulous green stemminess. It is the smell I associate with trimming the stems of cut roses to put them in a vase. I think this was M. Morillas’ intent to sort of let the wearer experience the stem before getting to the supernatural bloom on top. The natural ingredients are violet, hawthorn and rose. To this is added hedione and cyclosal the synthetic versions of jasmine and cyclamen respectively. Once these are all together in the heart of FlowerbyKenzo they form something which smells completely floral but a collage of the ingredients chosen by M. Morillas. It is another case where spending too much time analyzing the components destroys the effect trying to be created. After so many years wearing this I can now just let the floral accord make me smile without trying to pick it apart. The finale is a slightly soapy musk cocktail over amber and vanilla.
FlowerbyKenzo has 6-8 hour longevity and moderate sillage.
FlowerbyKenzo in its very elegant glass cylinder which looks like a poppy can be found at most discount perfume sites for less than $30/oz. I think it is one of the forgotten trailblazers of perfumery and if you’re looking for a different kind of floral than what you’re finding in the current marketplace give FlowerbyKenzo a try I think it will be the alternative you’re looking for.
Disclosure: This review was based on a bottle I purchased.
My first exposure to Avon was our local Avon Lady who visited our house regularly. There were commercials with the tag line “Avon Calling!” Many of those companies which sold door-to-door in the 1960’s and 1970’s were made obsolete by the internet. Avon has not only adapted they have thrived with $10 biliion in sales in 2013. They have managed to navigate the shifting fortunes and stake out a place for themselves. As I went through the box of fragrance supplied by my friend who is a current Avon Lady I was impressed with the consistency of the collection as a whole. Current Creative Director Isabel Lopes and her predecessors all understand how to make an appealing fragrance for their customers at a more than appealing price, around $20. The epitome of Discount Diamonds. Here are five more I think are worth giving a try.
Haiku Kyoto Flower by perfumer Pierre Negrin is the latest flanker to 2001’s Haiku, whose gauzy lilting green was also good. The newest member of the Haiku family is a little more outgoing. M. Negrin uses sharp violet made greener with blackcurrant. This is very much a recognizable opening from many niche perfumes but made more palatable by keeping it very light. The heart is peony and orange blossom, pretty and more pronounced then the top notes. It ends on sandalwood and a favorite in many of the feminine marketed Avon fragrances a cocktail of the cotton linen musks. This is very lovely green floral perfume.
Avon Femme is by perfumer Harry Fremont. M. Fremont is one of the best mainstream perfumers working currently. He definitely knows how to interpret a brand’s character and capture it in a fragrance. Avon Femme is a crisp fruity musk perfume. It starts with the snappy pairing of grapefruit and pear matched with a bit of very clean jasmine. There will be no indoles here this is fresh and pretty. Magnolia is the floral keynote supported with a bit of peach. It ends with the sheer musk cocktail I mentioned above. For those who want a skank-free jasmine fruity floral Avon Femme is a good choice.
Avon does make fragrances for men and Avon Exploration by perfumer Laurent Le Guernec is a good example. As I mentioned yesterday the men’s fragrances hew to an aesthetic of bracing and woody, Avon Exploration does that. M. Le Guernec does choose to make Avon Exploration very bracing as he fashions an olfactory slap of cardamom, sage, and rosemary. This is a very concentrated opening and it is typical of the masculine Avon fragrances. It does settle down into a sandalwood, vetiver, and non-sheer musk which is less challenging. If you are a fan of powerhouse men’s fragrances Avon Exploration is a modern version.
Far Away Gold by Calice Becker is a special warm floral. Mme Becker knows how to build a soft warm vanilla and sandalwood base even with the more cost-efficient materials and it is that where Far Away Gold ends. Prior to that osmanthus and peach lead to a jasmine and ylang-ylang heart. A wonderful comfort scent.
Avon does have their celebuscents and one of the more interesting collaborators is musician Bon Jovi. Part of the Bon Jovi collection is Unplugged for Her by perfumer Annie Buzantian. This was the most subtle fragrance of all of the ones I tried. It was very surprising since a rock star is associated with it, although it is unplugged. Mme Buzantian uses a very opaque application of ivy and plum to give a sheer green fruity opening. Rose carries the heart but this is a synthetic rose which carries the fresh floralcy and little of the spiciness or powdery facets. It keeps it on the light side for making that choice. A cocktail of soft woods and even softer white musks close this. Very easy to wear and a perfect office scent for those who work in close quarters and still want to wear perfume.
Now let me reiterate what I stated yesterday, perfume for $20 is not chock full of essential oils. There might be a pinch here and there but this is all synthetic versions of the notes I mentioned. As you can see there are very talented perfumers working for Avon and I think they do a tremendous job at making the most of a limited budget. Enough so that if you need an economical perfume fix contact your local Avon Lady…..Avon Calling!
Disclosure: This review was based on samples provided by Avon.
I chose Davidoff Cool Water as a Discount Diamond a couple months ago and I mentioned that it was the perfume which launched a thousand aquatic fragrances on to the market. Reading between the lines you can add the subtext “and most of them were bad”. But not all of them. 1995’s Bvlgari Aqva pour Homme took some of the concepts of the aquatic class and added in some unique beats to make it one of the few to stand out as successfully different.
Jacques Cavallier was part of the original group of perfumers who took the concepts of the aquatic and expanded it in the mid 1990’s. He was responsible for L’Eau D’Issey and L’Eau D’Issey pour Homme and was part of the creative team on Armani Acqua di Gio pour Homme. All of these were examples of the best aquatic fragrances on the shelf. By 2005 when he was commissioned to do Bvlgari Aqva pour Homme he wanted to try something different. His choice was to take two raw materials created especially to evoke water and make them the centerpiece of Bvlgari Aqva pour Homme.
M. Cavallier starts in well-trodden territory with citrus on top. Mandarin and petitgrain add a lip pursing tartness to the top notes. Then we get to the two unique raw materials in the heart Santolina and Posidonia. Santolina is more commonly known as cotton lavender and it has a lavender aspect crossed with a strong syrupy quality. Posidonia is simply the smell of drying seaweed after the ocean has receded leaving it behind on the beach. It has an ozonic watery quality on top of the vegetal note. Smelling either of these by themselves you would be hard pressed to believe these could be the centerpiece of a perfume. That is M. Cavallier’s skill as he takes these two notes and balances them so the lavender, the ozonic notes and a bit of the seaweed aspects form a fascinating seaside accord. It feels more realistic than the previous aquatics which wanted to clean up the ocean. Bvlgari Aqva pour Homme gives it all to you right down to the seaweed. The final phase is also quite interesting as M. Cavallier takes a soft amber and adds clary sage. Clary sage is usually further up the pyramid but in Bvlgari Aqva pour Homme it almost seems like it is what the seaweed evolves into. The amber adds a subtle warmth to the base notes.
Bvlgari Aqva pour Homme has 6-8 hours of longevity and average sillage.
M. Cavallier took a chance by using notes which weren’t widely used in the aquatic fragrance family and fashioned something wonderfully unique. It is one of the few aquatics I think is worth owning. If you want to own it it is found on most of the discount websites for less than $40 for 100mL.
Disclosure: This review was based on a bottle of Bvlgari Aqva pour Homme I purchased.